From the mountains of Jammu, a small spring sprouts. The snow clad Himalayans remain immersed in fog unless the sun shines on them but that too, lasts only for a few minutes. Once the sun is lost in the clouds again, these peaks don the white of mourning and shed tears, in the loving memory of the light, much like the rudalisof the desert … loud, heart-wrenching yet still superficial. The tears that roll down these mountains in the form of springs, grow into rivers in the plains and know no compassion.


Formed by the union of Surya Tal and Chander Tal, the river of Chander Bhag is known as Chenab on this side of the border. At Trimmu, the river Jhelum joins Chenab and adds to its serene signature. Down South, Ravi drops in and a little later, Sutlej also falls in Chenab. Gaining antiquity from the dried up Bias, Chenab finally falls in to river Sindh at Panjnad. The saint, that is river Sindh, then carries these waters to the Arabian Sea.

During its journey of almost a thousand kilometers, Chenab is nothing but myths and lore. Its real life stories have all shades of feeling and span from the plight of Sohni to the endeavors of Ranjha. While smoke and fog filter in to the ambiance of thatched restaurants up in the mountains of Leh, the locals charge tourists for telling made-up tales of the river, as old as Vedas. This is what has come to be known as culture, in our age.

Alongside the rivers, birds chirp about human settlements and one such dwelling is located to the north of Jhang. The name of Chiniot has a lunar reference that links it with Chander Tal, as well other mythologies. For ages, the city remained anonymous like a treasure island. It was only when the studious Saad ullah Khan from the neighboring town of Patraki made it to the court of Shah Jehan, that Chiniot rose to prominence. His flight from a penniless student to an affluent Prime Minister is attributed to his hard work, a phenomenon that recurs in almost all the success stories of Chiniot. Impressed by this minister, the Moghuls spotlighted Chiniot.

There are few references which identify Chiniot with “Channi-wat”, a city mentioned in the Ramayan and others which link it with Al-Beiruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind, but the first archived mention of the city is found in Tozak-e-Babri. While few believe that a tradition of love was enlivened here, many found the remains of a Pathshala by the banks of Chenab. Contrary to the metaphysical world of love and spirituality, the city now boasts a university and a fried chicken outlet.

Amongst the bustling streets and newly constructed government offices, a unique structure grabs the attention. Shrouded in the novel elegance of scrolls, this building is known as the Umer Hayat Palace or Gulzar Mahal. The location, size and unique structure of the palace have made it another emblem of the city.

The palace is located in Reekhti Mohallah, a colony named after an old fort. Nothing remains of the fort expect for a wall which, too, is shared by neighbouring houses. A madressah stands on one side of the palace and bazaar on the other. The troika of the palace, madressah and the market is ancient, as well as illustrating.

The city is also famous for Chinioti Shiekhs, who are the embodiment of business acumen. Due to their hard work, financial intelligence and meticulous behaviour, these entrepreneurs have made their mark on regional trade for over a century. Marriages at a young age, respect for elders and a well-organised network of close-knit families are the identity markers of this community. Prior to partition, they worked in Calcutta and maintained their bases at Chiniot. After 1947, a large number of Chiniotis made Pakistan their home and traded their love for Hooghly with that of the Arabian Sea. This explains the fact that the two cities of Chiniot and Karachi invariably find a connection in every Chinioti’s life.

Sheikh Umar Hayat was one such magnate of his time. Like other members of the community, he too lived in Chiniot and visited Calcutta for work. Besides his success, Umar Hayat was also famous for his generosity. Whenever he visited Chiniot, he made it a point to sit down in the market and give away money to the needy. During one of these philanthropic episodes, Elahi Bux Pirjha was passing by. A craftsman beyond brilliance, Pirjha was famous for his wood work; his Taziyas were known to depict a range of expression through storytelling. Every story featured the miniatures of Roman arches, Gothic structures and Persian grandeur in an Indian undertone. It was said that in Pirjha`s hands, wood transformed into wax. His fame had reached England and he was marked for woodwork at the Buckingham Palace. As he passed through the market, the attention drifted from Umer Hayat’s generosity to the dexterity of Pirjha. On his inquiry about Pirjha, Umer Hayat was informed about the artist with a candid remark:


He is an artist and you are a businessman. Today, you are rich but tomorrow his art will outlive your wealth.

Umer Hayat thought about this for a while and then called Pirjha to construct his house. Pirjha hinted that Umar Hayat’s money might not sustain his skill. Those were the good old days, when people were not frantically possessive about their thoughts, hence Pirjha was commissioned to the Umer Hayat Palace and his work started in 1922.

(To be continued…)